Handling and Disposing of Body Fluids

Each year it is necessary for you to review and acknowledge receipt of information on how to handle and dispose of body fluids. Please take a few moments to read through the information below (you may also print a copy for your records), then complete the acknowledgement form at the bottom of the page.



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HANDLING AND DISPOSING OF BODY FLUIDS

Health Department information about the transmission of diseases including AIDS and Hepatitis B focuses on "body fluids" as a possible carrier of organisms that can infect others. The term includes drainage from cuts and scrapes, vomit, urine, feces, respiratory secretions (nasal discharge), saliva, semen, and blood. While any contact with the body fluids of another person represents a risk, the level of risk is very low. The risk is increased if the fluid comes in contact with a break in the skin of another individual, an individual's eyes or mucous membranes, or is the result of a parenteral contact (i.e. a needle stick that pierces the skin). Generally, simple, consistent standards and procedures for cleanliness minimize risk.

The following procedures are precautionary measures against the transmission of diseases. Prudent actions are to be employed by the staff and students. These actions should focus primarily on steps that staff members can take to ensure their own well-being.

The procedures, however, are a review for all staff and students of appropriate hygienic and sanitation practices to be used in contact with all body fluids.

  1. Universally recognized precautions are to be followed at all times. Universally recognized precautions require the assumption that staff and students approach infection control as if all direct contact with human blood and body fluids is known to be infectious for HIV, HBV, and/or other blood borne pathogens.
  2. Whenever possible, a student should be directed to care for his/her own minor bleeding injury. This includes encouraging students to apply their own band-aids. If assistance is required, band-aids may be applied after removal of gloves if caretaker will not come in contact with blood or wound drainage.
  3. Gloves are required for all tasks in which an individual may come into contact with body fluids. Such tasks include cleaning body fluid spills, emptying trash cans, handling sharps containers, handling contaminated broken glass, cleaning contaminated equipment, and handling contaminated clothing. This also includes assisting with any minor wound care, treating bloody noses, handling clothes soiled by incontinence, diaper changing, and cleaning up vomit.
  4. Complete and effective hand washing of at least thirty (30) seconds duration should follow any first aid or health care given a student when body fluids are present.
  5. If exposure to blood or other potentially infectious materials occurs through coughing, any first aid procedure,  or through an open sore or break in the skin, thorough washing, preferably with germicidal soap and running water, is necessary.
  6. In the event hand washing facilities are not readily available, thorough cleaning using an antiseptic cleanser (Pure!!) and clean cloth/paper towel as an alternative is necessary. In the event alternatives are used, hands must be washed with soap and running water as soon as feasible.
  7. Any surface contaminated with blood or other potentially infectious materials must be cleaned after each use and at the end of the day with soap and water and then with EPA* approved disinfectant. These surfaces include equipment, counters, mats (including those used in physical education and athletic events) and changing tables.
  8. An EPA approved disinfectant* must be used when cleaning fluids such as blood and vomit from the floor or other such contaminated surfaces.
  9. Contaminated clothing or towels must be placed and transported in plastic bags to be laundered.  If contaminated laundry is wet and presents a reasonably likelihood of soakĀ­ through or leakage from the bag, it shall be placed in an additional bag to prevent soakĀ­ through or leakage.
  10. Needles, syringes, broken glass, and other sharp objects found on property must not be picked up by students at any time, nor by staff without appropriate puncture-proof gloves or mechanical device such as a broom, brush, and dust pan. Any such items found must be disposed of in closeable puncture resistant, leak-proof containers that are appropriately labeled or color-coded.
  11. All wastebaskets used to dispose of potentially infectious materials must be lined with a plastic bag liner that is changed daily.
  12. Gloves and repellant gowns are required for tasks in which exposure to blood or other potentially infectious materials can be anticipated to contaminate street clothing. Type and characteristics of such protective clothing will depend on the task. Such tasks may include diapering/toileting with gross contamination, assisting with wound care, bagging contaminated clothing and disposing of regulated waste with gross contamination.
  13. Maximum protection with gloves, face protection and gowns are required whenever splashes spray, spatter, or droplets of blood or other potentially infectious materials may be generated and eye, nose, or mouth contamination can be reasonably anticipated. Such tasks may include feeding a child with a history of spitting or forceful vomiting and assisting with severe injury and wounds and spurting blood.
  • Disinfectants which can be used include a bleach solution mixed as one (1) part bleach to five (5) parts water, Lysol, Purex, Tough Act bathroom cleaner, Dow bathroom cleaner, Real Pine liquid cleaner, Pine Sol, Spic and Span, Tackle liquid, Comet, and other products with EPA numbers.  Any self made solutions must be changed monthly.


Personal Protective Equipment

Protect Portals of Entry

 Portals of Entry---Points on the body where microorganisms (germs) can enter the body and cause disease.  If a microorganism cannot enter the body it cannot cause infection to occur.

  • Mouth via swallowing
  • Lungs via inhalation
  • Bloodstream via broken skin
  • Blood and tissues via other mucous membranes (eyes)

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) are engineering controls that are used to protect an individual's Portals of Entry.

  • Gloves                
  • Protective ClothingMasks
  • Protective Eyewear

The two most common blood borne pathogens are:

Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)                         

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

Hepatitis B Virus

  • this is the causative agent of the disease called Hepatitis
  • Hepatitis B is the most prevalent form of Hepatitis
  • Hepatitis is a disease characterized by the inflammation of the liver
  • Hepatitis B infects approximately300,000 people yearly
  • Frequently leads to cirrhosis and liver cancer
  • Currently there are over 1 million chronic carriers in the United States

SYMPTOMS                                 

  • Loss of appetite
  • Mild Fever
  • Jaundice
  • Dark urine or light feces
  • Fatigue
  • Diarrhea
  • Stomach pain
  • Itching skin
  • Nausea           
  • Aching muscles and joints
  • "Flu-like"

Individuals with Hepatitis B may not show symptoms for some time (6 weeks to 6 months after exposure) and can become chronic carriers of the disease.

Approximately 200 deaths occur each year in health care workers.

The Hepatitis B Virus can live on surfaces at room temperature for up to 7 days.

Hepatitis B is easier to contract than HIV because it can live on surfaces longer and it does not take as much blood to cause infection to occur.

If properly diagnosed and treated, recovery and prognosis are good.

Vaccination against Hepatitis B is available.


 

 

HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV)

Life threatening bloodborne pathogen.

A viral infection which attacks the immune system and causes the disease called Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS).

Not as infectious as hepatitis B virus because there are not as may virus particles present in body fluids.

The HIV virus is more fragile than the HBV vi1us and can be easily destroyed on environmental surfaces.

SYMPTOMS 

  • infections
  • Pneumocystis
  • Swollen lymph glands
  • rapid weight loss
  • diarrhea and decreased appetite
  • yeast infections
  • Kaposi Sarcoma
  • recurrent fever
  • constant fatigue
  • night sweats
  • pneumonia

 At present there is no vaccine against HIV.



BASIC FIRST AID REMINDERS

Nosebleeds

  • lean forward with tissue
  • pinch nostrils until bleeding stops
  • NO blowing nose x 20 minutes

Loose/ pulled teeth

  • moist paper towel & bite down lightly
  • if loose moist teabag to tooth area until bleeding stops

Burns

  • rinse area with cool water first
  • apply dry, clean band aid/dressing

Fractures

  • do not move victim unless it is upper extremities
  • If arms involved, support limb and get assist
  • If lower limbs, check for swelling, bruising, then elevate, and get assist

Head/neck/back

  • never move and/or minimize movement
  • CALL FOR ASSISTANCE
  • maintain open airway if possible
  • check for consciousness & breathing
  • control any bleeding (apply pressure)
  • keep from chills or overheating

Cuts/scrapes/bruises

  • apply pressure if bleeding clean with antiseptic
  • apply clean bandage/dressing (Neosporin)

Seizures

  • do not restrain the person
  • ·nothing between person's teeth
  • remove any harmful objects from area
  • turn to side if drooling/vomiting

Fainting

  • make certain they're breathing elevate feet
  • loosen restrictive clothing if needed

Stings

  • remove stinger with fingernail or plastic card if stinger is visible
  • wash with soap & water
  • apply cold pack to area
  • can apply Afterbite (ammonia), antihistamine lotion, insect wipes (benzocaine)
  • may need further action if allergic (call 91 1) if no treatment is available



 

SYMPTOMS OF ANAPHYLACTIC REACTION

Symptoms may include the following:

  • Breathing difficulties
  • Drop in blood pressure
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Shock
  • Itching of the skin
  • Hives
  • Swelling of the lips, tongue, and throat
  • Severe headache
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Sneezing and coughing
  • Abdominal cramps
  • Diarrhea
  • Sense of impending doom
  • Anxiety

Symptoms develop rapidly, often within seconds or minutes